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genlib.c

/*********************************************************************
 *   Copyright 1993, UCAR/Unidata
 *   See netcdf/COPYRIGHT file for copying and redistribution conditions.
 *   $Header: /upc/share/CVS/netcdf-3/ncgen/genlib.c,v 1.43 2004/11/16 21:37:25 russ Exp $
 *********************************************************************/

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <ctype.h>      /* for isprint() */
#ifndef NO_STDARG
#include    <stdarg.h>
#else
/* try varargs instead */
#include    <varargs.h>
#endif /* !NO_STDARG */
#include <netcdf.h>
#include "generic.h"
#include "ncgen.h"
#include "genlib.h"

extern char *netcdf_name; /* output netCDF filename, if on command line. */
extern int netcdf_flag;
extern int c_flag;
extern int fortran_flag;
extern int giantfile_flag;
extern int nofill_flag;

int   lineno = 1;
int   derror_count = 0;


/* create netCDF from in-memory structure */
static void
gen_netcdf(
     char *filename)          /* name for output netcdf file */
{
    int idim, ivar, iatt;
    int dimid;
    int varid;
    int stat;

    if (!giantfile_flag) {
      stat = nc_create(filename, NC_CLOBBER, &ncid);
      check_err(stat);
    } else {
      stat = nc_create(filename, NC_CLOBBER|NC_64BIT_OFFSET, &ncid);
      check_err(stat);
    }

    /* define dimensions from info in dims array */
    for (idim = 0; idim < ndims; idim++) {
      stat = nc_def_dim(ncid, dims[idim].name, dims[idim].size, &dimid);
      check_err(stat);
    }

    /* define variables from info in vars array */
    for (ivar = 0; ivar < nvars; ivar++) {
      stat = nc_def_var(ncid,
                    vars[ivar].name,
                    vars[ivar].type,
                    vars[ivar].ndims,
                    vars[ivar].dims,
                    &varid);
      check_err(stat);
    }

    /* define attributes from info in atts array */
    for (iatt = 0; iatt < natts; iatt++) {
      varid = (atts[iatt].var == -1) ? NC_GLOBAL : atts[iatt].var;
      switch(atts[iatt].type) {
      case NC_BYTE:
          stat = nc_put_att_schar(ncid, varid, atts[iatt].name,
                            atts[iatt].type, atts[iatt].len,
                            (signed char *) atts[iatt].val);
          break;
      case NC_CHAR:
          stat = nc_put_att_text(ncid, varid, atts[iatt].name,
                           atts[iatt].len,
                           (char *) atts[iatt].val);
          break;
      case NC_SHORT:
          stat = nc_put_att_short(ncid, varid, atts[iatt].name,
                            atts[iatt].type, atts[iatt].len,
                            (short *) atts[iatt].val);
          break;
      case NC_INT:
          stat = nc_put_att_int(ncid, varid, atts[iatt].name,
                            atts[iatt].type, atts[iatt].len,
                            (int *) atts[iatt].val);
          break;
      case NC_FLOAT:
          stat = nc_put_att_float(ncid, varid, atts[iatt].name,
                            atts[iatt].type, atts[iatt].len,
                            (float *) atts[iatt].val);
          break;
      case NC_DOUBLE:
          stat = nc_put_att_double(ncid, varid, atts[iatt].name,
                            atts[iatt].type, atts[iatt].len,
                            (double *) atts[iatt].val);
          break;
      default:
          stat = NC_EBADTYPE;
      }
      check_err(stat);
    }

    if (nofill_flag) {
      stat = nc_set_fill(ncid, NC_NOFILL, 0);   /* don't initialize with fill values */
      check_err(stat);
    }

    stat = nc_enddef(ncid);
    check_err(stat);
}


/*
 * Given a netcdf type, a pointer to a vector of values of that type,
 * and the index of the vector element desired, returns a pointer to a
 * malloced string representing the value in C.
 */
static char *
cstring(
     nc_type type,            /* netCDF type code */
     void *valp,        /* pointer to vector of values */
     int num)                 /* element of vector desired */
{
    static char *cp, *sp, ch;
    signed char *bytep;
    short *shortp;
    int *intp;
    float *floatp;
    double *doublep;

    switch (type) {
      case NC_CHAR:
      sp = cp = (char *) emalloc (7);
      *cp++ = '\'';
      ch = *((char *)valp + num);
      switch (ch) {
        case '\b': *cp++ = '\\'; *cp++ = 'b'; break;
        case '\f': *cp++ = '\\'; *cp++ = 'f'; break;
        case '\n': *cp++ = '\\'; *cp++ = 'n'; break;
        case '\r': *cp++ = '\\'; *cp++ = 'r'; break;
        case '\t': *cp++ = '\\'; *cp++ = 't'; break;
        case '\v': *cp++ = '\\'; *cp++ = 'v'; break;
        case '\\': *cp++ = '\\'; *cp++ = '\\'; break;
        case '\'': *cp++ = '\\'; *cp++ = '\''; break;
        default:
          if (!isprint(ch)) {
            static char octs[] = "01234567";
            int rem = ((unsigned char)ch)%64;
            *cp++ = '\\';
            *cp++ = octs[((unsigned char)ch)/64]; /* to get, e.g. '\177' */
            *cp++ = octs[rem/8];
            *cp++ = octs[rem%8];
          } else {
            *cp++ = ch;
          }
          break;
      }
      *cp++ = '\'';
      *cp = '\0';
      return sp;
      
      case NC_BYTE:
      cp = (char *) emalloc (7);
      bytep = (signed char *)valp;
      /* Need to convert '\377' to -1, for example, on all platforms */
      (void) sprintf(cp,"%d", (signed char) *(bytep+num));
      return cp;

      case NC_SHORT:
      cp = (char *) emalloc (10);
      shortp = (short *)valp;
      (void) sprintf(cp,"%d",* (shortp + num));
      return cp;

      case NC_INT:
      cp = (char *) emalloc (20);
      intp = (int *)valp;
      (void) sprintf(cp,"%d",* (intp + num));
      return cp;

      case NC_FLOAT:
      cp = (char *) emalloc (20);
      floatp = (float *)valp;
      (void) sprintf(cp,"%.8g",* (floatp + num));
      return cp;

      case NC_DOUBLE:
      cp = (char *) emalloc (20);
      doublep = (double *)valp;
      (void) sprintf(cp,"%.16g",* (doublep + num));
      return cp;

      default:
      derror("cstring: bad type code");
      return 0;
    }
}


/*
 * Generate C code for creating netCDF from in-memory structure.
 */
static void
gen_c(
     const char *filename)
{
    int idim, ivar, iatt, jatt, maxdims;
    int vector_atts;
    char *val_string;
    char stmnt[C_MAX_STMNT];

    /* wrap in main program */
    cline("#include <stdio.h>");
    cline("#include <stdlib.h>");
    cline("#include <netcdf.h>");
    cline("");
    cline("void");
    cline("check_err(const int stat, const int line, const char *file) {");
    cline("    if (stat != NC_NOERR) {");
    cline("    (void) fprintf(stderr, \"line %d of %s: %s\\n\", line, file, nc_strerror(stat));");
    cline("        exit(1);");
    cline("    }");
    cline("}");
    cline("");
    cline("int");
    sprintf(stmnt, "main() {\t\t\t/* create %s */", filename);
    cline(stmnt);

    /* create necessary declarations */
    cline("");
    cline("   int  stat;\t\t\t/* return status */");
    cline("   int  ncid;\t\t\t/* netCDF id */");

    if (ndims > 0) {
      cline("");
      cline("   /* dimension ids */");
      for (idim = 0; idim < ndims; idim++) {
          sprintf(stmnt, "   int %s_dim;", dims[idim].lname);
          cline(stmnt);
          }

      cline("");
      cline("   /* dimension lengths */");
      for (idim = 0; idim < ndims; idim++) {
          if (dims[idim].size == NC_UNLIMITED) {
            sprintf(stmnt, "   size_t %s_len = NC_UNLIMITED;",
                  dims[idim].lname);
          } else {
            sprintf(stmnt, "   size_t %s_len = %lu;",
                  dims[idim].lname,
                  (unsigned long) dims[idim].size);
          }
          cline(stmnt);
      }
    }

    maxdims = 0;  /* most dimensions of any variable */
    for (ivar = 0; ivar < nvars; ivar++)
      if (vars[ivar].ndims > maxdims)
      maxdims = vars[ivar].ndims;

    if (nvars > 0) {
      cline("");
      cline("   /* variable ids */");
      for (ivar = 0; ivar < nvars; ivar++) {
          sprintf(stmnt, "   int %s_id;", vars[ivar].lname);
          cline(stmnt);
      }

      cline("");
      cline("   /* rank (number of dimensions) for each variable */");
      for (ivar = 0; ivar < nvars; ivar++) {
          sprintf(stmnt, "#  define RANK_%s %d", vars[ivar].lname,
                vars[ivar].ndims);
          cline(stmnt);
      }
      if (maxdims > 0) {      /* we have dimensioned variables */
          cline("");
          cline("   /* variable shapes */");
          for (ivar = 0; ivar < nvars; ivar++) {
            if (vars[ivar].ndims > 0) {
                sprintf(stmnt, "   int %s_dims[RANK_%s];",
                      vars[ivar].lname, vars[ivar].lname);
                cline(stmnt);
            }
          }
      }
    }

    /* determine if we need any attribute vectors */
    vector_atts = 0;
    for (iatt = 0; iatt < natts; iatt++) {
      if (atts[iatt].type != NC_CHAR) {
          vector_atts = 1;
          break;
      }
    }
    if (vector_atts) {
      cline("");
      cline("   /* attribute vectors */");
      for (iatt = 0; iatt < natts; iatt++) {
          if (atts[iatt].type != NC_CHAR) {
            sprintf(stmnt,
                "   %s %s_%s[%lu];",
                ncatype(atts[iatt].type),
                atts[iatt].var == -1 ? "cdf" : vars[atts[iatt].var].lname,
                atts[iatt].lname,
                (unsigned long) atts[iatt].len);
            cline(stmnt);
          }
      }
    }

    /* create netCDF file, uses NC_CLOBBER mode */
    cline("");
    cline("   /* enter define mode */");

    if (!giantfile_flag) {
      sprintf(stmnt,
            "   stat = nc_create(\"%s\", NC_CLOBBER, &ncid);",
            filename);
    } else {
      sprintf(stmnt,
            "   stat = nc_create(\"%s\", NC_CLOBBER|NC_64BIT_OFFSET, &ncid);",
            filename);
    }
    cline(stmnt);
    cline("   check_err(stat,__LINE__,__FILE__);");
    
    /* define dimensions from info in dims array */
    if (ndims > 0) {
      cline("");
      cline("   /* define dimensions */");
    }
    for (idim = 0; idim < ndims; idim++) {
      sprintf(stmnt,
            "   stat = nc_def_dim(ncid, \"%s\", %s_len, &%s_dim);",
            dims[idim].name, dims[idim].lname, dims[idim].lname);
      cline(stmnt);
      cline("   check_err(stat,__LINE__,__FILE__);");
    }

    /* define variables from info in vars array */
    if (nvars > 0) {
      cline("");
      cline("   /* define variables */");
      for (ivar = 0; ivar < nvars; ivar++) {
          cline("");
          for (idim = 0; idim < vars[ivar].ndims; idim++) {
            sprintf(stmnt,
                  "   %s_dims[%d] = %s_dim;",
                  vars[ivar].lname,
                  idim,
                  dims[vars[ivar].dims[idim]].lname);
            cline(stmnt);
          }
          if (vars[ivar].ndims > 0) {     /* a dimensioned variable */
            sprintf(stmnt,
                  "   stat = nc_def_var(ncid, \"%s\", %s, RANK_%s, %s_dims, &%s_id);",
                  vars[ivar].name,
                  nctype(vars[ivar].type),
                  vars[ivar].lname,
                  vars[ivar].lname,
                  vars[ivar].lname);
          } else {            /* a scalar */
            sprintf(stmnt,
                  "   stat = nc_def_var(ncid, \"%s\", %s, RANK_%s, 0, &%s_id);",
                  vars[ivar].name,
                  nctype(vars[ivar].type),
                  vars[ivar].lname,
                  vars[ivar].lname);
          }
          cline(stmnt);
          cline("   check_err(stat,__LINE__,__FILE__);");
      }
    }
    
    /* define attributes from info in atts array */
    if (natts > 0) {
      cline("");
      cline("   /* assign attributes */");
      for (iatt = 0; iatt < natts; iatt++) {
          if (atts[iatt].type == NC_CHAR) { /* string */
            val_string = cstrstr((char *) atts[iatt].val, atts[iatt].len);
            sprintf(stmnt,
                  "   stat = nc_put_att_text(ncid, %s%s, \"%s\", %lu, %s);",
                  atts[iatt].var == -1 ? "NC_GLOBAL" : vars[atts[iatt].var].lname,
                  atts[iatt].var == -1 ? "" : "_id",
                  atts[iatt].name,
                  (unsigned long) atts[iatt].len,
                  val_string);
            cline(stmnt);
            free (val_string);
          }
          else {              /* vector attribute */
            for (jatt = 0; jatt < atts[iatt].len ; jatt++) {
                val_string = cstring(atts[iatt].type,atts[iatt].val,jatt);
                sprintf(stmnt, "   %s_%s[%d] = %s;",
                      atts[iatt].var == -1 ? "cdf" : vars[atts[iatt].var].lname,
                      atts[iatt].lname,
                      jatt, 
                      val_string);
                cline(stmnt);
                free (val_string);
            }
            
            sprintf(stmnt,
                  "   stat = nc_put_att_%s(ncid, %s%s, \"%s\", %s, %lu, %s_%s);",
                  ncatype(atts[iatt].type),
                  atts[iatt].var == -1 ? "NC_GLOBAL" : vars[atts[iatt].var].lname,
                  atts[iatt].var == -1 ? "" : "_id",
                  atts[iatt].name,
                  nctype(atts[iatt].type),
                  (unsigned long) atts[iatt].len,
                  atts[iatt].var == -1 ? "cdf" : vars[atts[iatt].var].lname,
                  atts[iatt].lname);
            cline(stmnt);
          }
          cline("   check_err(stat,__LINE__,__FILE__);");
      }
    }

    if (nofill_flag) {
        cline("   /* don't initialize variables with fill values */");
      cline("   stat = nc_set_fill(ncid, NC_NOFILL, 0);");
      cline("   check_err(stat,__LINE__,__FILE__);");
    }

    cline("");
    cline("   /* leave define mode */");
    cline("   stat = nc_enddef (ncid);");
    cline("   check_err(stat,__LINE__,__FILE__);");
}


/* return Fortran type name for netCDF type, given type code */
static const char *
ncftype(
     nc_type type)            /* netCDF type code */
{
    switch (type) {

      case NC_BYTE:
      return "integer";
      case NC_CHAR:
      return "character";
      case NC_SHORT:
      return "integer";
      case NC_INT:
#ifdef MSDOS
      return "integer*4";
#else
      return "integer";
#endif
      case NC_FLOAT:
      return "real";
#ifdef _CRAY
      case NC_DOUBLE:
      return "real";          /* we don't support CRAY 128-bit doubles */
#else
      case NC_DOUBLE:
      return "double precision";
#endif
      default:
      derror("ncftype: bad type code");
      return 0;

    }
}


/* return Fortran type suffix for netCDF type, given type code */
const char *
nfstype(
     nc_type type)            /* netCDF type code */
{
    switch (type) {
      case NC_BYTE:
      return "int1";
      case NC_CHAR:
      return "text";
      case NC_SHORT:
      return "int2";
      case NC_INT:
      return "int";
      case NC_FLOAT:
      return "real";
      case NC_DOUBLE:
      return "double";
      default:
      derror("nfstype: bad type code");
      return 0;

    }
}


/* Return Fortran function suffix for netCDF type, given type code.
 * This should correspond to the Fortran type name in ncftype().
 */
const char *
nfftype(
     nc_type type)            /* netCDF type code */
{
    switch (type) {
      case NC_BYTE:
      return "int";
      case NC_CHAR:
      return "text";
      case NC_SHORT:
      return "int";
      case NC_INT:
      return "int";
      case NC_FLOAT:
      return "real";
#ifdef _CRAY
      case NC_DOUBLE:
      return "real";          /* we don't support CRAY 128-bit doubles */
#else
      case NC_DOUBLE:
      return "double";
#endif
      default:
      derror("nfstype: bad type code");
      return 0;

    }
}


/* return FORTRAN name for netCDF type, given type code */
static const char *
ftypename(
     nc_type type)                  /* netCDF type code */
{
    switch (type) {
      case NC_BYTE:
      return "NF_INT1";
      case NC_CHAR:
      return "NF_CHAR";
      case NC_SHORT:
      return "NF_INT2";
      case NC_INT:
      return "NF_INT";
      case NC_FLOAT:
      return "NF_REAL";
      case NC_DOUBLE:
      return "NF_DOUBLE";
      default:
      derror("ftypename: bad type code");
      return 0;
    }
}


/*
 * Generate FORTRAN code for creating netCDF from in-memory structure.
 */
static void
gen_fortran(
     const char *filename)
{
    int idim, ivar, iatt, jatt, itype, maxdims;
    int vector_atts;
    char *val_string;
    char stmnt[FORT_MAX_STMNT];
    char s2[NC_MAX_NAME + 10];
    char *sp;
    /* Need how many netCDF types there are, because we create an array
     * for each type of attribute. */
    int ntypes = 6;           /* number of netCDF types, NC_BYTE, ... */
    nc_type types[6];         /* at least ntypes */
    size_t max_atts[NC_DOUBLE + 1];

    types[0] = NC_BYTE;
    types[1] = NC_CHAR;
    types[2] = NC_SHORT;
    types[3] = NC_INT;
    types[4] = NC_FLOAT;
    types[5] = NC_DOUBLE;

    fline("program fgennc");

    fline("include 'netcdf.inc'");

    /* create necessary declarations */
    fline("* error status return");
    fline("integer  iret");
    fline("* netCDF id");
    fline("integer  ncid");
    if (nofill_flag) {
        fline("* to save old fill mode before changing it temporarily");
      fline("integer  oldmode");
    }

    if (ndims > 0) {
      fline("* dimension ids");
      for (idim = 0; idim < ndims; idim++) {
          sprintf(stmnt, "integer  %s_dim", dims[idim].lname);
          fline(stmnt);
      }

      fline("* dimension lengths");
      for (idim = 0; idim < ndims; idim++) {
          sprintf(stmnt, "integer  %s_len", dims[idim].lname);
          fline(stmnt);
      }
      for (idim = 0; idim < ndims; idim++) {
          if (dims[idim].size == NC_UNLIMITED) {
            sprintf(stmnt, "parameter (%s_len = NF_UNLIMITED)",
                  dims[idim].lname);
          } else {
            sprintf(stmnt, "parameter (%s_len = %lu)",
                  dims[idim].lname,
                  (unsigned long) dims[idim].size);
          }
          fline(stmnt);
      }
      
    }

    maxdims = 0;        /* most dimensions of any variable */
    for (ivar = 0; ivar < nvars; ivar++)
      if (vars[ivar].ndims > maxdims)
      maxdims = vars[ivar].ndims;

    if (nvars > 0) {
      fline("* variable ids");
      for (ivar = 0; ivar < nvars; ivar++) {
          sprintf(stmnt, "integer  %s_id", vars[ivar].lname);
          fline(stmnt);
      }

      fline("* rank (number of dimensions) for each variable");
      for (ivar = 0; ivar < nvars; ivar++) {
          sprintf(stmnt, "integer  %s_rank", vars[ivar].lname);
          fline(stmnt);
      }
      for (ivar = 0; ivar < nvars; ivar++) {
          sprintf(stmnt, "parameter (%s_rank = %d)", vars[ivar].lname,
                vars[ivar].ndims);
          fline(stmnt);
      }
      
      fline("* variable shapes");
      for (ivar = 0; ivar < nvars; ivar++) {
          if (vars[ivar].ndims > 0) {
            sprintf(stmnt, "integer  %s_dims(%s_rank)",
                  vars[ivar].lname, vars[ivar].lname);
            fline(stmnt);
          }
      }
    }

    /* declarations for variables to be initialized */
    if (nvars > 0) {          /* we have variables */
      fline("* data variables");
      for (ivar = 0; ivar < nvars; ivar++) {
          struct vars *v = &vars[ivar];
          /* Generate declarations here for non-record data variables only.
             Record variables are declared in separate subroutine later,
               when we know how big they are. */
          if (v->ndims > 0 && v->dims[0] == rec_dim) {
            continue;
          }
          /* Make declarations for non-text variables only;
             for text variables, just include string in nf_put_var call */
          if (v->type == NC_CHAR) {
                continue;
            }
          if (v->ndims == 0) { /* scalar */
            sprintf(stmnt, "%s  %s", ncftype(v->type),
                  v->lname);
          } else {
            sprintf(stmnt, "%s  %s(", ncftype(v->type),
                  v->lname);
            /* reverse dimensions for FORTRAN */
            for (idim = v->ndims-1; idim >= 0; idim--) {
                sprintf(s2, "%s_len, ",
                      dims[v->dims[idim]].lname);
                strcat(stmnt, s2);
            }
            sp = strrchr(stmnt, ',');
            if(sp != NULL) {
                *sp = '\0';
            }
            strcat(stmnt, ")");
          }
          fline(stmnt);
      }
    }

    /* determine what attribute vectors needed */
    for (itype = 0; itype < ntypes; itype++)
        max_atts[(int)types[itype]] = 0;

    vector_atts = 0;
    for (iatt = 0; iatt < natts; iatt++) {
      if (atts[iatt].len > max_atts[(int) atts[iatt].type]) {
          max_atts[(int)atts[iatt].type] = atts[iatt].len;
          vector_atts = 1;
      }
    }
    if (vector_atts) {
      fline("* attribute vectors");
      for (itype = 0; itype < ntypes; itype++) {
          if (types[itype] != NC_CHAR && max_atts[(int)types[itype]] > 0) {
            sprintf(stmnt, "%s  %sval(%lu)", ncftype(types[itype]),
                  nfstype(types[itype]),
                  (unsigned long) max_atts[(int)types[itype]]);
            fline(stmnt);
          }
      }
    }

    /* create netCDF file, uses NC_CLOBBER mode */
    fline("* enter define mode");
    if (!giantfile_flag) {
      sprintf(stmnt, "iret = nf_create(\'%s\', NF_CLOBBER, ncid)", filename);
    } else {
      sprintf(stmnt, "iret = nf_create(\'%s\', OR(NF_CLOBBER,NF_64BIT_OFFSET), ncid)", filename);
    }
    fline(stmnt);
    fline("call check_err(iret)");
    
    /* define dimensions from info in dims array */
    if (ndims > 0)
        fline("* define dimensions");
    for (idim = 0; idim < ndims; idim++) {
      if (dims[idim].size == NC_UNLIMITED)
            sprintf(stmnt, "iret = nf_def_dim(ncid, \'%s\', NF_UNLIMITED, %s_dim)",
                    dims[idim].name, dims[idim].lname);
      else
            sprintf(stmnt, "iret = nf_def_dim(ncid, \'%s\', %lu, %s_dim)",
                    dims[idim].name, (unsigned long) dims[idim].size,
                  dims[idim].lname);
      fline(stmnt);
      fline("call check_err(iret)");
    }
        
    /* define variables from info in vars array */
    if (nvars > 0) {
      fline("* define variables");
      for (ivar = 0; ivar < nvars; ivar++) {
          for (idim = 0; idim < vars[ivar].ndims; idim++) {
            sprintf(stmnt, "%s_dims(%d) = %s_dim",
                  vars[ivar].lname,
                  vars[ivar].ndims - idim, /* reverse dimensions */
                  dims[vars[ivar].dims[idim]].lname);
            fline(stmnt);
          }
          if (vars[ivar].ndims > 0) {     /* a dimensioned variable */
            sprintf(stmnt, 
                  "iret = nf_def_var(ncid, \'%s\', %s, %s_rank, %s_dims, %s_id)",
                  vars[ivar].name,
                  ftypename(vars[ivar].type),
                  vars[ivar].lname,
                  vars[ivar].lname,
                  vars[ivar].lname);
          } else {            /* a scalar */
            sprintf(stmnt, 
                  "iret = nf_def_var(ncid, \'%s\', %s, %s_rank, 0, %s_id)",
                  vars[ivar].name,
                  ftypename(vars[ivar].type),
                  vars[ivar].lname,
                  vars[ivar].lname);
          }
          fline(stmnt);
          fline("call check_err(iret)");
      }
    }

    /* define attributes from info in atts array */
    if (natts > 0) {
      fline("* assign attributes");
      for (iatt = 0; iatt < natts; iatt++) {
          if (atts[iatt].type == NC_CHAR) { /* string */
            val_string = fstrstr((char *) atts[iatt].val, atts[iatt].len);
            sprintf(stmnt, 
                  "iret = nf_put_att_text(ncid, %s%s, \'%s\', %lu, %s)",
                  atts[iatt].var == -1 ? "NF_GLOBAL" : vars[atts[iatt].var].lname,
                  atts[iatt].var == -1 ? "" : "_id",
                  atts[iatt].name,
                  (unsigned long) atts[iatt].len,
                  val_string);
            fline(stmnt);
            fline("call check_err(iret)");
            free(val_string);
          } else {
            for (jatt = 0; jatt < atts[iatt].len ; jatt++) {
                val_string = fstring(atts[iatt].type,atts[iatt].val,jatt);
                sprintf(stmnt, "%sval(%d) = %s",
                      nfstype(atts[iatt].type),
                      jatt+1, 
                      val_string);
                fline(stmnt);
                free (val_string);
            }
          
            sprintf(stmnt,
                  "iret = nf_put_att_%s(ncid, %s%s, \'%s\', %s, %lu, %sval)",
                  nfftype(atts[iatt].type),
                  atts[iatt].var == -1 ? "NCGLOBAL" : vars[atts[iatt].var].lname,
                  atts[iatt].var == -1 ? "" : "_id",
                  atts[iatt].name,
                  ftypename(atts[iatt].type),
                  (unsigned long) atts[iatt].len,
                  nfstype(atts[iatt].type));
            fline(stmnt);
            fline("call check_err(iret)");
          }
      }
    }

    if (nofill_flag) {
        fline("* don't initialize variables with fill values");
      fline("iret = nf_set_fill(ncid, NF_NOFILL, oldmode)");
      fline("call check_err(iret)");
    }

    fline("* leave define mode");
    fline("iret = nf_enddef(ncid)");
    fline("call check_err(iret)");
}


/*
 * Output a C statement.
 */
void
cline(
     const char *stmnt)
{
    FILE *cout = stdout;
    
    fputs(stmnt, cout);
    fputs("\n", cout);
}

/*
 * From a long line FORTRAN statment, generates the necessary FORTRAN
 * lines with continuation characters in column 6.  If stmnt starts with "*",
 * it is treated as a one-line comment.  Statement labels are *not* handled,
 * but since we don't generate any labels, we don't care.
 */
void
fline(
     const char *stmnt)
{
    FILE *fout = stdout;
    int len = (int) strlen(stmnt);
    int line = 0;
    static char cont[] = {    /* continuation characters */
      ' ', '1', '2', '3', '4', '5', '6', '7', '8', '9',
      '+', '1', '2', '3', '4', '5', '6', '7', '8', '9',
      '+', '1', '2', '3', '4', '5', '6', '7', '8', '9'};
    
    if(stmnt[0] == '*') {
      fputs(stmnt, fout);
      fputs("\n", fout);
      return;
    }

    while (len > 0) {
      if (line >= FORT_MAX_LINES)
        derror("FORTRAN statement too long: %s",stmnt);
      (void) fprintf(fout, "     %c", cont[line++]);
      (void) fprintf(fout, "%.66s\n", stmnt);
      len -= 66;
      if (len > 0)
        stmnt += 66;
    }
}


/* return C name for netCDF type, given type code */
const char *
nctype(
     nc_type type)                  /* netCDF type code */
{
    switch (type) {
      case NC_BYTE:
      return "NC_BYTE";
      case NC_CHAR:
      return "NC_CHAR";
      case NC_SHORT:
      return "NC_SHORT";
      case NC_INT:
      return "NC_INT";
      case NC_FLOAT:
      return "NC_FLOAT";
      case NC_DOUBLE:
      return "NC_DOUBLE";
      default:
      derror("nctype: bad type code");
      return 0;
    }
}


/*
 * Return C type name for netCDF type, given type code.
 */
const char *
ncctype(
     nc_type type)                  /* netCDF type code */
{
    switch (type) {
      case NC_BYTE:
      return "signed char";
      case NC_CHAR:
      return "char";
      case NC_SHORT:
      return "short";
      case NC_INT:
      return "int";
      case NC_FLOAT:
      return "float";
      case NC_DOUBLE:
      return "double";
      default:
      derror("ncctype: bad type code");
      return 0;
    }
}



/*
 * Return C type name for netCDF type suffix, given type code.
 */
const char *
ncstype(
     nc_type type)                  /* netCDF type code */
{
    switch (type) {
      case NC_BYTE:
      return "schar";
      case NC_CHAR:
      return "text";
      case NC_SHORT:
      return "short";
      case NC_INT:
      return "int";
      case NC_FLOAT:
      return "float";
      case NC_DOUBLE:
      return "double";
      default:
      derror("ncstype: bad type code");
      return 0;
    }
}


/*
 * Return C type name for netCDF attribute container type, given type code.
 */
const char *
ncatype(
     nc_type type)                  /* netCDF type code */
{
    switch (type) {
      case NC_BYTE:
      return "int";           /* avoids choosing between uchar and schar */
      case NC_CHAR:
      return "text";
      case NC_SHORT:
      return "short";
      case NC_INT:
      return "int";
      case NC_FLOAT:
      return "float";
      case NC_DOUBLE:
      return "double";
      default:
      derror("ncatype: bad type code");
      return 0;
    }
}


/* return internal size for values of specified netCDF type */
size_t
nctypesize(
     nc_type type)                  /* netCDF type code */
{
    switch (type) {
      case NC_BYTE:
      return sizeof(char);
      case NC_CHAR:
      return sizeof(char);
      case NC_SHORT:
      return sizeof(short);
      case NC_INT:
      return sizeof(int);
      case NC_FLOAT:
      return sizeof(float);
      case NC_DOUBLE:
      return sizeof(double);
      default:
      derror("nctypesize: bad type code");
      return 0;
    }
}


/*
 * Given a netcdf numeric type, a pointer to a vector of values of that
 * type, and the index of the vector element desired, returns a pointer
 * to a malloced string representing the value in FORTRAN.  Since this
 * may be used in a DATA statement, it must not include non-constant
 * expressions, such as "char(26)".
 */
char *
fstring(
     nc_type type,            /* netCDF type code */
     void *valp,        /* pointer to vector of values */
     int num)                 /* element of vector desired */
{
    static char *cp;
    signed char *schp;
    short *shortp;
    int *intp;
    float *floatp;
    double *doublep;

    switch (type) {
      case NC_BYTE:
      cp = (char *) emalloc (10);
      schp = (signed char *)valp;
        sprintf(cp,"%d", schp[num]);
      return cp;

      case NC_SHORT:
      cp = (char *) emalloc (10);
      shortp = (short *)valp;
      (void) sprintf(cp,"%d",* (shortp + num));
      return cp;

      case NC_INT:
      cp = (char *) emalloc (20);
      intp = (int *)valp;
      (void) sprintf(cp,"%d",* (intp + num));
      return cp;

      case NC_FLOAT:
      cp = (char *) emalloc (20);
      floatp = (float *)valp;
      (void) sprintf(cp,"%.8g",* (floatp + num));
      return cp;

      case NC_DOUBLE:
      cp = (char *) emalloc (25);
      doublep = (double *)valp;
      (void) sprintf(cp,"%.16g",* (doublep + num));
      expe2d(cp); /* change 'e' to 'd' in exponent */
      return cp;

      default:
      derror("fstring: bad type code");
      return 0;
    }
}


/*
 * Given a pointer to a counted string, returns a pointer to a malloced string
 * representing the string as a C constant.
 */
char *
cstrstr(
     const char *valp,        /* pointer to vector of characters*/
     size_t len)        /* number of characters in valp */
{
    static char *sp;
    char *cp;
    char *istr, *istr0;       /* for null-terminated copy */
    int ii;
    
    if(4*len+3 != (unsigned)(4*len+3)) {
      derror("too much character data!");
      exit(9);
    }
    sp = cp = (char *) emalloc(4*len+3);

    if(len == 1 && *valp == 0) { /* empty string */
      strcpy(sp,"\"\"");
      return sp;
    }

    istr0 = istr = (char *) emalloc(len + 1);
    for(ii = 0; ii < len; ii++) {
      istr[ii] = valp[ii];
    }
    istr[len] = '\0';

    *cp++ = '"';
    for(ii = 0; ii < len; ii++) {
      switch (*istr) {
      case '\0': *cp++ = '\\'; *cp++ = '0'; *cp++ = '0'; *cp++ = '0'; break;
      case '\b': *cp++ = '\\'; *cp++ = 'b'; break;
      case '\f': *cp++ = '\\'; *cp++ = 'f'; break;
      case '\n': *cp++ = '\\'; *cp++ = 'n'; break;
      case '\r': *cp++ = '\\'; *cp++ = 'r'; break;
      case '\t': *cp++ = '\\'; *cp++ = 't'; break;
      case '\v': *cp++ = '\\'; *cp++ = 'v'; break;
      case '\\': *cp++ = '\\'; *cp++ = '\\'; break;
      case '\"': *cp++ = '\\'; *cp++ = '\"'; break;
      default:
          if (!isprint(*istr)) {
            static char octs[] = "01234567";
            int rem = ((unsigned char)*istr)%64;
            *cp++ = '\\';
            *cp++ = octs[((unsigned char)*istr)/64]; /* to get, e.g. '\177' */
            *cp++ = octs[rem/8];
            *cp++ = octs[rem%8];
          } else {
            *cp++ = *istr;
          }
          break;
      }
      istr++;
    }
    *cp++ = '"';
    *cp = '\0';
    free(istr0);
    return sp;
}


/* Given a pointer to a counted string (not necessarily
 * null-terminated), returns a pointer to a malloced string representing
 * the string as a FORTRAN string expression.  For example, the string
 * "don't" would yield the FORTRAN string "'don''t'", and the string
 * "ab\ncd" would yield "'ab'//char(10)//'cd'".  The common
 * interpretation of "\"-escaped characters is non-standard, so the
 * generated Fortran may require adjustment in compilers that don't
 * recognize "\" as anything special in a character context.  */
char *
fstrstr(
     const char *str,               /* pointer to vector of characters */
     size_t ilen)             /* number of characters in istr */
{
    static char *ostr;
    char *cp, tstr[12];
    int was_print = 0;        /* true if last character was printable */
    char *istr, *istr0;       /* for null-terminated copy */
    int ii;

    if(12*ilen != (size_t)(12*ilen)) {
      derror("too much character data!");
      exit(9);
    }
    istr0 = istr = (char *) emalloc(ilen + 1);
    for(ii = 0; ii < ilen; ii++) {
      istr[ii] = str[ii];
    }
    istr[ilen] = '\0';
    
    if (*istr == '\0') {      /* empty string input, not legal in FORTRAN */
      ostr = (char*) emalloc(strlen("char(0)") + 1);
      strcpy(ostr, "char(0)");
      free(istr0);
      return ostr;
    }
    ostr = cp = (char *) emalloc(12*ilen);
    *ostr = '\0';
    if (isprint(*istr)) {     /* handle first character in input */
      *cp++ = '\'';
      switch (*istr) {
      case '\'':
          *cp++ = '\'';
          *cp++ = '\'';
          break;
      case '\\':
          *cp++ = '\\';
          *cp++ = '\\';
          break;
      default:
          *cp++ = *istr;
          break;
      }
      *cp = '\0';
      was_print = 1;
    } else {
      sprintf(tstr, "char(%d)", (unsigned char)*istr);
      strcat(cp, tstr);
      cp += strlen(tstr);
      was_print = 0;
    }
    istr++;

    for(ii = 1; ii < ilen; ii++) { /* handle subsequent characters in input */
      if (isprint(*istr)) {
          if (! was_print) {
            strcat(cp, "//'");
            cp += 3;
          }
          switch (*istr) {
          case '\'':
            *cp++ = '\'';
            *cp++ = '\'';
            break;
          case '\\':
            *cp++ = '\\';
            *cp++ = '\\';
            break;
          default:
            *cp++ = *istr;
            break;
          }
          *cp = '\0';
          was_print = 1;
      } else {
          if (was_print) {
            *cp++ = '\'';
            *cp = '\0';
          }
          sprintf(tstr, "//char(%d)", (unsigned char)*istr);
          strcat(cp, tstr);
          cp += strlen(tstr);
          was_print = 0;
      }
      istr++;
    }
    if (was_print)
      *cp++ = '\'';
    *cp = '\0';
    free(istr0);
    return ostr;
}


static void
cl_netcdf(void)
{
    int stat = nc_close(ncid);
    check_err(stat);
}


static void
cl_c(void)
{
    cline("   stat = nc_close(ncid);");
    cline("   check_err(stat,__LINE__,__FILE__);");
#ifndef vms
    cline("   return 0;");
#else
    cline("   return 1;");
#endif
    cline("}");
}

/* Returns true if dimension used in at least one record variable,
  otherwise false.  This is an inefficient algorithm, but we don't call
  it very often ... */
static int
used_in_rec_var(
    int idim                  /* id of dimension */
    ) {
    int ivar;
    
    for (ivar = 0; ivar < nvars; ivar++) {
      if (vars[ivar].ndims > 0 && vars[ivar].dims[0] == rec_dim) {
          int jdim;
          for (jdim = 0; jdim < vars[ivar].ndims; jdim++) {
            if (vars[ivar].dims[jdim] == idim)
                return 1;
          }
      }
    }
    return 0;
}


/* Return name for Fortran fill constant of specified type */
static const char *
f_fill_name(
    nc_type type
    )
{
    switch(type) {
    case NC_BYTE:
      return "NF_FILL_BYTE";
    case NC_CHAR:
      return "NF_FILL_CHAR";
    case NC_SHORT:
      return "NF_FILL_SHORT";
    case NC_INT:
      return "NF_FILL_INT";
    case NC_FLOAT:
      return "NF_FILL_FLOAT";
    case NC_DOUBLE:
      return "NF_FILL_DOUBLE";
    }
    derror("f_fill_name: bad type code");
    return 0;
}


/* Generate Fortran for cleaning up and closing file */
static void
cl_fortran(void)
{
    int ivar;
          int idim;
    char stmnt[FORT_MAX_STMNT];
    char s2[FORT_MAX_STMNT];
    char*sp;
    int have_rec_var = 0;
    
    /* do we have any record variables? */
    for (ivar = 0; ivar < nvars; ivar++) {
      struct vars *v = &vars[ivar];
        if (v->ndims > 0 && v->dims[0] == rec_dim) {
          have_rec_var = 1;
            break;
        }
    }        

    if (have_rec_var) {
      fline(" ");
      fline("* Write record variables");
        sprintf(stmnt, "call writerecs(ncid,");
        /* generate parameter list for subroutine to write record vars */
        for (ivar = 0; ivar < nvars; ivar++) {
            struct vars *v = &vars[ivar];
            /* if a record variable, include id in parameter list */
            if (v->ndims > 0 && v->dims[0] == rec_dim) {
                sprintf(s2, "%s_id,", v->lname);
                strcat(stmnt, s2);
            }
        }        
        sp = strrchr(stmnt, ',');
        if(sp != NULL) {
            *sp = '\0';
        }
        strcat(stmnt, ")");
        fline(stmnt);
    }
    
    fline(" ");
    fline("iret = nf_close(ncid)");
    fline("call check_err(iret)");
    fline("end");

    fline(" ");

    if (have_rec_var) {
        sprintf(stmnt, "subroutine writerecs(ncid,");
        for (ivar = 0; ivar < nvars; ivar++) {
            struct vars *v = &vars[ivar];
            if (v->ndims > 0 && v->dims[0] == rec_dim) {
                sprintf(s2, "%s_id,", v->lname);
                strcat(stmnt, s2);
            }
        }        
        sp = strrchr(stmnt, ',');
        if(sp != NULL) {
            *sp = '\0';
        }
        strcat(stmnt, ")");
        fline(stmnt);
      fline(" ");
        fline("* netCDF id");
        fline("integer  ncid");

      fline("* variable ids");
      for (ivar = 0; ivar < nvars; ivar++) {
          struct vars *v = &vars[ivar];
            if (v->ndims > 0 && v->dims[0] == rec_dim) {
                sprintf(stmnt, "integer  %s_id", v->lname);
                fline(stmnt);
            }
      }

      fline(" ");
        fline("include 'netcdf.inc'");

        /* create necessary declarations */
        fline("* error status return");
        fline("integer  iret");

        /* generate integer/parameter declarations for all dimensions
          used in record variables, except record dimension. */
        fline(" ");
        fline("* netCDF dimension sizes for dimensions used with record variables");
        for (idim = 0; idim < ndims; idim++) {
            /* if used in a record variable and not record dimension */
            if (used_in_rec_var(idim) && dims[idim].size != NC_UNLIMITED) {
                sprintf(stmnt, "integer  %s_len", dims[idim].lname);
                fline(stmnt);
                sprintf(stmnt, "parameter (%s_len = %lu)",
                        dims[idim].lname, (unsigned long) dims[idim].size);
                fline(stmnt);
            }
        }

      fline(" ");
      fline("* rank (number of dimensions) for each variable");
      for (ivar = 0; ivar < nvars; ivar++) {
          struct vars *v = &vars[ivar];
            if (v->ndims > 0 && v->dims[0] == rec_dim) {
                sprintf(stmnt, "integer  %s_rank", v->lname);
                fline(stmnt);
            }
      }
      for (ivar = 0; ivar < nvars; ivar++) {
          struct vars *v = &vars[ivar];
            if (v->ndims > 0 && v->dims[0] == rec_dim) {
                sprintf(stmnt, "parameter (%s_rank = %d)", v->lname,
                        v->ndims);
                fline(stmnt);
            }
      }

      fline("* starts and counts for array sections of record variables");
      for (ivar = 0; ivar < nvars; ivar++) {
          struct vars *v = &vars[ivar];
          if (v->ndims > 0 && v->dims[0] == rec_dim) {
            sprintf(stmnt,
                  "integer  %s_start(%s_rank), %s_count(%s_rank)",
                  v->lname, v->lname, v->lname, v->lname);
            fline(stmnt);
          }
      }
        
      fline(" ");
      fline("* data variables");
        
        for (ivar = 0; ivar < nvars; ivar++) {
            struct vars *v = &vars[ivar];
            if (v->ndims > 0 && v->dims[0] == rec_dim) {
                char *sp;
          
                fline(" ");
                sprintf(stmnt, "integer  %s_nr", v->lname);
                fline(stmnt);
                if (v->nrecs > 0) {
                    sprintf(stmnt, "parameter (%s_nr = %lu)",
                            v->lname, (unsigned long) v->nrecs);
                } else {
                    sprintf(stmnt, "parameter (%s_nr = 1)",
                            v->lname);
                }
                fline(stmnt);
            if (v->type != NC_CHAR) {
                sprintf(stmnt, "%s  %s(", ncftype(v->type),
                      v->lname);
                /* reverse dimensions for FORTRAN */
                for (idim = v->ndims-1; idim >= 0; idim--) {
                  if(v->dims[idim] == rec_dim) {
                      sprintf(s2, "%s_nr, ", v->lname);
                  } else {
                      sprintf(s2, "%s_len, ",
                            dims[v->dims[idim]].lname);
                  }
                  strcat(stmnt, s2);
                }
                sp = strrchr(stmnt, ',');
                if(sp != NULL) {
                  *sp = '\0';
                }
                strcat(stmnt, ")");
                fline(stmnt);
            }
            }
        }

        fline(" ");

        /* Emit DATA statements after declarations, because f2c on Linux can't
          handle interspersing them */
        for (ivar = 0; ivar < nvars; ivar++) {
            struct vars *v = &vars[ivar];

            if (v->ndims > 0 && v->dims[0] == rec_dim && v->type != NC_CHAR) {
                if (v->has_data) {
                    fline(v->data_stmnt);
                } else {            /* generate data statement for FILL record */
                    size_t rec_len = 1;
                    for (idim = 1; idim < v->ndims; idim++) {
                        rec_len *= dims[v->dims[idim]].size;
                    }
                    sprintf(stmnt,"data %s /%lu * %s/", v->lname,
                  (unsigned long) rec_len,
                            f_fill_name(v->type));          
                    fline(stmnt);
                }
            }
        }
      fline(" ");
      for (ivar = 0; ivar < nvars; ivar++) {
          struct vars *v = &vars[ivar];
          /* if a record variable, declare starts and counts */
          if (v->ndims > 0 && v->dims[0] == rec_dim) {
            if (!v->has_data)
                continue;
            sprintf(stmnt, "* store %s", v->name);
            fline(stmnt);

            for (idim = 0; idim < v->ndims; idim++) {
                sprintf(stmnt, "%s_start(%d) = 1", v->lname, idim+1);
                fline(stmnt);
            }
            for (idim = v->ndims-1; idim > 0; idim--) {
                sprintf(stmnt, "%s_count(%d) = %s_len", v->lname,
                      v->ndims - idim, dims[v->dims[idim]].lname);
                fline(stmnt);
            }
                sprintf(stmnt, "%s_count(%d) = %s_nr", v->lname,
                        v->ndims, v->lname);
            fline(stmnt);
            
            if (v->type != NC_CHAR) {
                sprintf(stmnt,
                      "iret = nf_put_vara_%s(ncid, %s_id, %s_start, %s_count, %s)",
                      nfftype(v->type), v->lname, v->lname, v->lname, v->lname);
            } else {
                sprintf(stmnt,
                      "iret = nf_put_vara_%s(ncid, %s_id, %s_start, %s_count, %s)",
                      nfftype(v->type), v->lname, v->lname, v->lname,
                      v->data_stmnt);
            }
            
            fline(stmnt);
            fline("call check_err(iret)");
          }
      }

        fline(" ");

        fline("end");

        fline(" ");
    }

    fline("subroutine check_err(iret)");
    fline("integer iret");
    fline("include 'netcdf.inc'");
    fline("if (iret .ne. NF_NOERR) then");
    fline("print *, nf_strerror(iret)");
    fline("stop");
    fline("endif");
    fline("end");
}


/* invoke netcdf calls (or generate C or Fortran code) to create netcdf
 * from in-memory structure. */
void
define_netcdf(
     const char *netcdfname)
{
    char *filename;           /* output file name */
    
    if (netcdf_name) {        /* name given on command line */
      filename = netcdf_name;
    } else {                  /* construct name from CDL name */
      filename = (char *) emalloc(strlen(netcdfname) + 5);
      (void) strcpy(filename,netcdfname);
      if (netcdf_flag == -1)
        (void) strcat(filename,".cdf"); /* old, deprecated extension */
      else
        (void) strcat(filename,".nc"); /* new, favored extension */
    }
    if (netcdf_flag)
      gen_netcdf(filename);   /* create netcdf */
    if (c_flag)               /* create C code to create netcdf */
      gen_c(filename);
    if (fortran_flag)         /* create Fortran code to create netcdf */
      gen_fortran(filename);
    free(filename);
}


void
close_netcdf(void)
{
    if (netcdf_flag)
      cl_netcdf();            /* close netcdf */
    if (c_flag)               /* create C code to close netcdf */
      cl_c();
    if (fortran_flag)         /* create Fortran code to close netcdf */
      cl_fortran();
}


void
check_err(int stat) {
    if (stat != NC_NOERR) {
      fprintf(stderr, "ncgen: %s\n", nc_strerror(stat));
      derror_count++;
    }
}

/*
 * For logging error conditions.
 */
#ifndef NO_STDARG
void
derror(const char *fmt, ...)
#else
/*VARARGS1*/
void
derror(fmt, va_alist)
     const char *fmt ;        /* error-message printf-style format */
     va_dcl             /* variable number of error args, if any */
#endif /* !NO_STDARG */
{
    va_list args ;


    if (lineno == 1)
      (void) fprintf(stderr,"%s: %s: ", progname, cdlname);
    else  
      (void) fprintf(stderr,"%s: %s line %d: ", progname, cdlname, lineno);

#ifndef NO_STDARG
    va_start(args ,fmt) ;
#else
    va_start(args) ;
#endif /* !NO_STDARG */

    (void) vfprintf(stderr,fmt,args) ;
    va_end(args) ;

    (void) fputc('\n',stderr) ;
    (void) fflush(stderr);    /* to ensure log files are current */
    derror_count++;
}


void *
emalloc (               /* check return from malloc */
      size_t size)
{
    void   *p;

    p = (void *) malloc (size);
    if (p == 0) {
      derror ("out of memory\n");
      exit(3);
    }
    return p;
}

void *
ecalloc (               /* check return from calloc */
      size_t size)
{
    void   *p;

    p = (void *) calloc (size, 1);
    if (p == 0) {
      derror ("out of memory\n");
      exit(3);
    }
    return p;
}

void *
erealloc (        /* check return from realloc */
     void *ptr,
     size_t size)             /* if 0, this is really a free */
{
    void *p;

    p = (void *) realloc (ptr, size);

    if (p == 0 && size != 0) {
      derror ("out of memory");
      exit(3);
    }
    return p;
}


/*
 * For generated Fortran, change 'e' to 'd' in exponent of double precision
 * constants.
 */
void
expe2d(
    char *cp)                 /* string containing double constant */
{
    char *expchar = strrchr(cp,'e');
    if (expchar) {
      *expchar = 'd';
    }
}



/* Returns non-zero if n is a power of 2, 0 otherwise */
static
int
pow2(
     int n)
{
  int m = n;
  int p = 1;

  while (m > 0) {
    m /= 2;
    p *= 2;
  }
  return p == 2*n;
}


/*
 * Grow an integer array as necessary.
 *
 * Assumption: nar never incremented by more than 1 from last call.
 *
 * Makes sure an array is within a factor of 2 of the size needed.
 *
 * Make sure *arpp points to enough space to hold nar integers.  If not big
 * enough, malloc more space, copy over existing stuff, free old.  When
 * called for first time, *arpp assumed to be uninitialized.
 */
void
grow_iarray(
     int nar,                 /* array must be at least this big */
     int **arpp)        /* address of start of int array */
{
  if (nar == 0) {
    *arpp = (int *) emalloc(1 * sizeof(int));
    return;
  }
  if (! pow2(nar))            /* return unless nar is a power of two */
    return;
  *arpp = (int *) erealloc(*arpp, 2 * nar * sizeof(int));
}


/*
 * Grow an array of variables as necessary.
 *
 * Assumption: nar never incremented by more than 1 from last call.
 *
 * Makes sure array is within a factor of 2 of the size needed.
 *
 * Make sure *arpp points to enough space to hold nar variables.  If not big
 * enough, malloc more space, copy over existing stuff, free old.  When
 * called for first time, *arpp assumed to be uninitialized.
 */
void
grow_varray(
     int nar,                 /* array must be at least this big */
     struct vars **arpp)      /* address of start of var array */
{
  if (nar == 0) {
    *arpp = (struct vars *) emalloc(1 * sizeof(struct vars));
    return;
  }
  if (! pow2(nar))            /* return unless nar is a power of two */
    return;
  *arpp = (struct vars *) erealloc(*arpp, 2 * nar * sizeof(struct vars));
}


/*
 * Grow an array of dimensions as necessary.
 *
 * Assumption: nar never incremented by more than 1 from last call.
 *
 * Makes sure array is within a factor of 2 of the size needed.
 *
 * Make sure *arpp points to enough space to hold nar dimensions.  If not big
 * enough, malloc more space, copy over existing stuff, free old.  When
 * called for first time, *arpp assumed to be uninitialized.
 */
void
grow_darray(
     int nar,                 /* array must be at least this big */
     struct dims **arpp)      /* address of start of var array */
{
  if (nar == 0) {
    *arpp = (struct dims *) emalloc(1 * sizeof(struct dims));
    return;
  }
  if (! pow2(nar))            /* return unless nar is a power of two */
    return;
  *arpp = (struct dims *) erealloc(*arpp, 2 * nar * sizeof(struct dims));
}


/*
 * Grow an array of attributes as necessary.
 *
 * Assumption: nar never incremented by more than 1 from last call.
 *
 * Makes sure array is within a factor of 2 of the size needed.
 *
 * Make sure *arpp points to enough space to hold nar attributes.  If not big
 * enough, malloc more space, copy over existing stuff, free old.  When
 * called for first time, *arpp assumed to be uninitialized.
 */
void
grow_aarray(
     int nar,                 /* array must be at least this big */
     struct atts **arpp)      /* address of start of var array */
{
  if (nar == 0) {
    *arpp = (struct atts *) emalloc(1 * sizeof(struct atts));
    return;
  }
  if (! pow2(nar))            /* return unless nar is a power of two */
    return;
  *arpp = (struct atts *) erealloc(*arpp, 2 * nar * sizeof(struct atts));
}


/*
 * Replace dashes and dots in name so it can be used in C and
 * Fortran without causing syntax errors.  Here we just replace each "-"
 * in a name with "_dash_" and each "." with "_dot_", though any
 * similar replacement that doesn't clash with existing names would
 * work.
 */
extern char*
decodify (
    const char *name)
{
    int count=0;        /* number of minus signs in name */
    char *newname;
    const char *cp = name;
    char *sp;

    while(*cp != '\0') {
      switch (*cp) {
      case '-':
          count += strlen("_dash_") - 1;
          break;
      case '.':
          count += strlen("_dot_") - 1;
          break;
      case '@':
          count += strlen("_at_") - 1;
          break;
      case '#':
          count += strlen("_hash_") - 1;
          break;
      case '[':
          count += strlen("_lbr_") - 1;
          break;
      case ']':
          count += strlen("_rbr_") - 1;
          break;
      default:
          break;
      }
      cp++;
    }
    newname = (char *) ecalloc(strlen(name) + count + 1);
    cp = name;
    sp = newname;
    while(*cp != '\0') {
      switch (*cp) {
      case '-':
          strcat(sp, "_dash_");
          sp += strlen("_dash_");
          break;
      case '.':
          strcat(sp, "_dot_");
          sp += strlen("_dot_");
          break;
      case '@':
          strcat(sp, "_at_");
          sp += strlen("_at_");
          break;
      case '#':
          strcat(sp, "_hash_");
          sp += strlen("_hash_");
          break;
      case '[':
          strcat(sp, "_lbr_");
          sp += strlen("_lbr_");
          break;
      case ']':
          strcat(sp, "_rbr_");
          sp += strlen("_rbr_");
          break;
      default:
          *sp++ = *cp;
          break;
      }
      cp++;
    }
    *sp = '\0';
    return newname;
}

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